Emeralds Emeralds are a green to blue variety of beryl, they also come in hues of aquamarine, the level of green color visible with the emerald can determine whether this is a valuable emerald or rather a cheaper green beryl. The process of mining for emeralds is very fragile work- it requires very steady ability to free the gemstones inside the rock usually nested inside rocks of less value. These are the techniques used to mine Emeralds: – Open Pit Mining: A large pit is dug by workers which is about 12 – 13 meters deep the pit is then flushed with water to wear the surface rocks exposing the minerals inside them. – Terrace Mining: A large hole is dug also about 12 – 13 meters deep steps are created on the sides of the pit heading toward the bottom, these steps are where miners will search for the emeralds. – Tunnel Mining: A tunnel is dug through the surface to reach a stream of emerald containing rock.
Amethyst Amethyst forms as fillings in granitic gneisses as well as marbles. The ancient Greeks wore Amethyst and made drinking vessels from carved amethyst as well, under the belief that they would be protected from intoxication by the mineral. In its structure, Amethyst is a type of quartz which gets its color from irradiation combined with elements of impurities of iron and in some instances other metals.
Garnets Garnets are a range of silicate minerals which have been used by mankind since as early as the Bronze Age in the form of gemstones and abrasives too. Garnets generally have similar properties and crystal form, however there is a distinct difference among them when it comes to their chemical compositions.
Citrines They are among the most purchased yellow gemstones. Citrines get their name inspired by the citron fruit which resembles a large lemon. Quartz in its purest form is colorless its distinct hue derived from the various elements inside it. This gemstone is highly attractive with yellow to golden orange hues to reddish browns. Citrines in their natural form are very rare – natural citrines do not have visible color zoning, and this makes them extremely desired.
Tourmalines Tourmaline is a crystalline boron silicate mineral which contains elements of aluminum, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium. This mineral comes in various colors and is classified as semiprecious, you can get both pink and green colored Tourmalines. The varieties of Tourmalines are: – Schorl – Dravite – Elbait.
Aquamarine The name is derived from Latin: aqua marina meaning saltwater, for its apparent milky appearance. Green-yellow beryl a variation of aquamarine is at times called chrysolite aquamarine. The deep blue variant of the aquamarine is called maxixe. The ancient Romans believed that aquamarine would protect them against any dangers while traveling at sea and that it provides energy and cures laziness. Aquamarine is dual-colored – dichroic with a blue appearance sometimes colorless depending on the angle the gemstone is viewed from. Aquamarine occurs with few and sometimes with no inclusions. Aquamarines are beautiful to behold and appear dazzling for a semi-precious stone.
Copper Malachite Malachite is a type of copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, it’s formula is Cu2CO3(OH)2. The opaque,green banded mineral crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, often forming botryoidal, fibrous, and stalagmitic masses, deep underground. There the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. Each crystal is rare but does occur as slender to acicular prisms.
Gold Gold is a chemical element which carries the symbol Au as well as the atomic number 79 which makes it a higher atomic number element which occurs naturally. Gold occurs in elemental forms as nuggets or grains which are found in rocks in streams and alluvial deposits too. Gold occurs in a solid solution with the element silver and in few cases it can occur in minerals as gold compounds. Gold is a transition metal – a group 11 element and one of the least reactive chemical elements. Gold is known for its high value and is among the world’s most valuable element of all time.
Manganese Manganese is a chemical which is identified with the symbol Mn it’s atomic number being 25. It is notfound as a free element in nature and is more often found in minerals combined with iron. Managanese is a transition metal and is widely used in industrial environments as an alloy particularly in stainless steel.